Course Title: Catatonia Associated with Schizophrenia
Release date: July, 2020
Expiration date: July, 2022
Estimated time to complete activity: 1.5 hours
Hardware / Software Requirements: Compatible with Internet Explorer 6 and up, Mozilla Firefox 3 and up, Safari 4.0, and Google Chrome 10 and up.
If you have any questions, please contact MER at (800)-421-3756, http://www.cmepartner.org/contact
This activity is jointly provided by Medical Education Resources and Symptom Media.
Nurses, general practice physicians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and marriage and family therapists, substance abuse counselors, allied health professionals, and students and trainees of these disciplines.
Underlying Need for this Course
The purpose of this course is to assist nurses, doctors, and allied health professionals in understanding the definition and diagnostic criteria, epidemiological statistics, pharmacological and non-pharmacologic treatments, duration of symptoms, and complications of catatonia associated with schizophrenia. No single test or exam can confirm catatonia, leading to under-recognition (1).
- Symptoms of catatonia are often overlooked or go unrecognized
- Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments exists to ease or eliminate these symptoms.
- Recent changes to the DSM-5 mean that clinicians may be unaware of the verbiage and diagnostic criteria
- Catatonia has historically been over-associated with schizophrenia when it is in fact associated with many medical and psychiatric illnesses. The other causes and associated diseases are also discussed.
No single test or exam can confirm catatonia, leading to under-recognition (1). There is evidence for the effectiveness of various treatments (2). The DSM changed how catatonia is diagnosed (3). There are many causes of catatonia, with schizophrenia being one of them, and understanding the different causes is necessary for effective treatment (4).
- Clinicians need to be informed of the new KNOWLEDGE on the causes, treatments of, and diagnosis of catatonia
- Clinicians need to be COMPETENT in recognizing symptoms that often go overlooked
- Clinicians need to PERFORM the correct treatments and interventions
By the end of this course learners will be able to:
- Define catatonia
- Discuss the prevalence of catatonia associated with schizophrenia
- Identify symptoms of catatonia
- List at least 3 diagnostic criteria
- Review pharmacological treatments for catatonia
- Describe non-pharmacological evidence-based treatments for this disorder
- Name two or more disorders other than schizophrenia that catatonia is also associated with
Meet your instructor: Stephanie Arnold is an Adult Psychiatric/Mental Health Clinical Nurse Specialist working as an advance practice nurse in psychiatry. She holds an undergraduate degree in Celtic Studies from UC Berkeley, an MSN from Cal State Los Angeles, and is a doctoral candidate in the University of Alabama’s DNP program. Stephanie also teaches mental health nursing to graduate and undergraduate students. She is a member of Sigma Theta Tau and Golden Key International Honour Societies. She was inducted into a chapter of the Philanthropic Educational Organization and is an active member serving on the Ways and Means Committee.
The course includes material designed to assist nurses, doctors, and allied health professionals in understanding the definition and diagnostic criteria, epidemiological statistics, pharmacological and non-pharmacologic treatments, duration of symptoms, and complications of catatonia associated with schizophrenia.
Online course slides with course objectives, a purpose statement, relevant course content, and references are offered alongside video demonstrations of symptoms and behaviors. Expert commentary is interspersed throughout the course videos to enhance learning and symptom recognition, and subject matter tests are offered to learners in multiple-choice format.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Medical Education Resources (MER) and Symptom Media. MER is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Medical Education Resources designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Medical Education Resources is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.
This CE activity provides 1.5 contact hours of continuing nursing education.
Medical Education Resources is a provider of continuing nursing education by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider #CEP 12299, for 1.5 contact hours.
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Medical Education Resources ensures balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all our educational programs. In accordance with this policy, MER identifies conflicts of interest with its instructors, content managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of an activity. Conflicts are resolved by MER to ensure that all scientific research referred to, reported, or used in a continuing education activity conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis. MER is committed to providing its learners with high-quality activities that promote improvements or quality in health care and not the business interest of a commercial interest.
The faculty reported the following financial relationships with commercial interests whose products or services may be mentioned in this activity:
The content managers reported the following financial relationships with commercial interests whose products or services may be mentioned in this activity:
Method of Participation
There are no fees for participating in and receiving credit for this activity (or insert fee amount if applicable). During the period July, 2020 through July, 2022, participants must 1) read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures, 2) study the educational activity, 3) complete the posttest by recording the best answer to each question, 4) complete the evaluation.
A statement of credit will be issued only upon receipt of a completed activity evaluation form and a completed posttest with a score of 70% or better.
1. Kahlbaum, K. (1874). Catatonia or the tension insanity. Berlin:verlag august hirshwald.
2. American psychiatric association (2013). Catatonia associated with another mental disorder. In diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed), p.119-120
3. Ackerman, K. D. & Demartini, A. F. (Eds.) (2015). Psychosomatic medicine. Ney york, new york: oxford university press, pp. 278.
4. Bartolommei, N., Lattanzi, L., Callari, A., Cosentino, L., Luchini, F., & Mauri, M. (2012). Catatonia: a critical review and therapeutic recommendations. Journal of psychopathology, 18, p. 235.
5. Moore, D. P. & Jefferson, J. W. (2004). Catatonia. In handbook of medical psychiatry, 2nd ed. St. Louis, mo: mosby, pp. 292-293.
6. American psychiatric association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, second edition, 2004 http://www.Psych.Org/mainmenu/psychiatricpractice/Practiceguidelines_1.Aspx
The content and views presented in this educational activity are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Medical Education Resources and/or Symptom Media. The authors have disclosed if there is any discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA in their presentations. Before prescribing any medicine, primary references and full prescribing information should be consulted. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management.