Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; F43.10) Criterion D – Negative Alterations in Cognitions and Mood
D. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event(s), as evidenced by two (or more) of the following:
- Inability to remember important aspect(s) of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as head injury, alcohol, or drugs).
- Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world.
- Persistent, distorted beliefs about the cause or consequences of the traumatic event(s) that lead the individual to blame himself/herself or others.
- Persistent negative emotional state (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame).
- Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities.
- Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
- Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., inability to experience happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings).
(American Psychiatric Association, 2022)