Demo Chapter – Diagnostic Criteria


Diagnostic Criteria


According the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM–5)(2), people with catatonia associated with schizophrenia will show three or more of the following symptoms:

  1. Stupor (i.E., No psychomotor activity; not actively relating to environment).
  2. Catalepsy (i.E., Passive induction of a posture held against gravity).
  3. Waxy flexibility (i.E., Slight, even resistance to positioning by examiner).
  4. Mutism (i.E., No, or very little, verbal response [exclude if known aphasia]).
  5. Negativism (i.E., Opposition or no response to instructions or external stimuli).
  6. Posturing (i.E., Spontaneous and active maintenance of a posture against gravity).
  7. Mannerism (i.E., Odd, circumstantial caricature of normal actions).
  8. Stereotypy (i.E., Repetitive, abnormally frequent, non-goal-directed movements).
  9. Agitation, not influenced by external stimuli.
  10. Grimacing.
  11. Echolalia (i.E., Mimicking another’s speech).
  12. Echopraxia (i.E., Mimicking another’s movements).
(2) American psychiatric association (2013). Catatonia associated with another mental disorder. In diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed), p.119-120