According the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM–5)(2), people with catatonia associated with schizophrenia will show three or more of the following symptoms:
- Stupor (i.E., No psychomotor activity; not actively relating to environment).
- Catalepsy (i.E., Passive induction of a posture held against gravity).
- Waxy flexibility (i.E., Slight, even resistance to positioning by examiner).
- Mutism (i.E., No, or very little, verbal response [exclude if known aphasia]).
- Negativism (i.E., Opposition or no response to instructions or external stimuli).
- Posturing (i.E., Spontaneous and active maintenance of a posture against gravity).
- Mannerism (i.E., Odd, circumstantial caricature of normal actions).
- Stereotypy (i.E., Repetitive, abnormally frequent, non-goal-directed movements).
- Agitation, not influenced by external stimuli.
- Echolalia (i.E., Mimicking another’s speech).
- Echopraxia (i.E., Mimicking another’s movements).
(2) American psychiatric association (2013). Catatonia associated with another mental disorder. In diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed), p.119-120